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Does Self-Discipline Outdo IQ in Performance?

Valid IQ tests have been available since the early 1900s and a high IQ has always been considered to mean a higher academic performance. How then can we account for such stark variations among learners with the same IQ? The answer lies in laziness and a lack of motivation versus self-discipline and perseverance.

In a longitudinal study, by Duckworth and Seligman, of 140 eighth-grade students, self-discipline, measured by self-report, parent report, teacher report, and monetary choice questionnaires in the fall predicted final school results, school attendance, regular achievement-test scores, and selection into a competitive high school program the following spring. In duplication with 164 eighth graders; a behavioural delay-of-gratification task, a questionnaire on study habits, as well as a group-administered IQ test were added to the study. Self-discipline measured in the fall accounted for more than twice as much change as IQ in results, high-school selection, school presence, hours spent doing homework, hours spent watching television, and the time of day students began their homework. The effect of self-discipline on final grades held even when controlling for first-marking-period grades, achievement-test scores, and measured IQ. These findings suggest a major reason for students falling short of their intellectual potential: their failure to exercise self-discipline.

In the study, it was found that adolescents with a higher IQ outperformed their more impatient and volatile peers on every academic performance variable. Variables included report card results, standardized achievement test scores, admission into more competitive high schools, as well as attendance. Learners with a higher level of self-discipline also earned higher GPAs and achievement test scores. These learners had a better chance of attaining admission to tertiary education, were absent less from school, spent a greater deal of time on homework and less time watching television and instead started their homework earlier. Unlike IQ studies, research based on consistent self-discipline was able to predict gains in academic performance throughout the school year. Advocating for the validity of Duckworth’s and Seligman’s findings; a study by Wolfe and Johnson in 1995 found self-discipline to be the only one among 32 measured personality variables (such as self-esteem, extraversion, energy level, etc.) that was able to predict a learner’s college grade point average.

Sadly, many teachers and parents have witnessed first-hand how some learners have wasted their academic potential. Tutors and teachers will inevitably meet learners who have the intellectual potential to excel academically and yet do not because they refuse to put in the time and effort; they lack self-discipline. So what are some of the reasons for a lack in self-discipline? According to studies, one reason is the need for instant gratification. For example, Learner A has maintained consistently low or average academic results which are a direct result of his not studying enough or putting sufficient time into his work. Learner A then suddenly decides to study hard for an upcoming test but fails to see much improvement. Learner A then assumes studying does not help, failing to realise that good grades and a substantial improvement in academic results require time, determination and self-discipline. Such examples coincide with McClure, who in 1986 speculated that, “Our society’s emphasis on instant gratification may mean that young students are unable to delay gratification long enough to achieve academic competence”.

Good results are not always a quick fix. Sometimes, improvement takes time and extra work over a long-term period. Brightsparkz Tutors realise the importance of determination and self-discipline. Our tutors will help your learner to improve their academic performance on a long-term basis rather than short term. This is done by motivating learners to do their best and by making learning more enjoyable thereby encouraging self-discipline. Let us help your learner to achieve their best with our adept and knowledgeable tutors through motivation and learning that is both informative and fun!

 

How To Become A Great Tutor

Problems Facing First-Time Tutees:

  • Many learners may be nervous when learning in a one-on-one environment for the first time. Learners may find it hard to communicate how they feel or what exactly they may be struggling to understand. Your job is to create a positive environment that your learner feels comfortable in.
  • Not all learners have received much encouragement with their studies and so might feel doubtful of their potential. It is important that you, as a tutor, take the time to sit down with your learner and set realistic goals.
  • Some learners may struggle to see their tutor as more than an assessor. This is a difficult view to overcome, especially if you are helping your learner study towards an exam. The key is to be open, friendly, and to encourage the learner’s self-assurance so make your style of tutoring non-confrontational.
  • Sometimes you may forget or overlook when a learner may feel obliged to defer to you. This could be because learners are not used to feeling on the spot in a one-on-one environment. A good tutor will notice any such feelings and adjust their tutoring habits accordingly. Tutors should NOT be the only ones speaking during a session. Instead, tutors need to encourage learners to express their own opinions and establish an open dialogue. This will build your learner’s confidence, to encourage them to think independently and will help you (as a tutor) to understand what your learner may have difficulty communicating.

 

No matter the problem that you or your learner may face, it is vital to be patient with them, and to build their confidence through reassurance and praise. Your ultimate goal is to help your learner become comfortable and assured in the subject, even if they occasionally make mistakes.

 

Encouraging tutees to contribute

Learners are more likely to engage when:

  • They feel comfortable around you
  • You show them respect and encouragement, ESPECIALLY when they make mistakes
  • Learning is seen as a co-operative exercise, not a militant one
  • You both agree upon realistic and attainable tasks
  • They are encouraged to contribute their own feelings and are not just lectured to
  • Feedback is common so miscommunication does not occur
  • Avoid giving answers to unresponsive or shy. Rather frame your questions in a different way
  • They are presented with open-ended questions that encourages independent thought

When directing discussions it is important to think about and remember to:

  • Give regular feedback that is supportive and constructive
  • To provide corrections in a non-confrontational or hostile way
  • Praise good work and emphasise work done well rather than work done badly
  • Be friendly!
  • Balance tutor and learner contributions
  • Encourage quiet learners, but take care not to overpower them

Closing lessons – To determine how your learner feels about lesson progression, ask open-ended questions such as:

  • What has been the most significant thing you have learned today?
  • Do you have any questions after today’s lesson?
  • Discuss homework that you have given and make sure your learner is able to tackle it with understanding
  • Make a self-evaluation checklist. This can help you be the best tutor you can be and to stay on point!

 

Top 6 Tips for Being the Best Tutor You Can Be:

Have a sense of humour – A sense of humour can help to relieve any tension in a session. It is especially helpful when tutoring learners who are shy and reluctant to learn or to participate. A sense of humour will also ‘lighten’ the mood, making your lesson more fun, give the feelings of going by quicker, and most importantly, memorable. The more memorable the lesson, the more memorable the content learnt!

A positive attitude – Sometimes nerves may rear their ugly head and stress out learners. Stress can result in feelings of inadequacy and a lack of motivation. Times like this require you to be the motivation, encouragement and sense of positivity!

Realistic expectations – An effective tutor will have realistic expectations. Your expectations need to be based on each learner’s individual situation and needs. It is important to set goals that are not too high or too low. Too low expectations can make your learner feel like you don’t believe them or to be lazy while too high expectation can place too much pressure on your learner.

Consistence – In order to create a positive learning environment your students should know what to expect from you each session. You need to be reliable. This will create a safe learning environment for the students and they will be more likely to succeed.

Fairness – A fair tutor is consistent, encouraging and sets realistic goals. A fair tutor will not teach in a hostile or confrontational environment. Instead, he or she will be encouraging when tutoring as well as when providing adequate and helpful feedback.

Flexibility – While consistency is important, it is important to remember that anything can happen and problems may arise at any moment. Interruptions do happen and so a flexible attitude is important when assigning homework tasks and goals.

 

If you would like a tutor of your own please visit BrightSparkz Tutors today!

What’s New with BrightSparkz Tutors

“With over 10 years of experience tutoring South African learners, we have found that a blended approach to learning, incorporating both online and one-on-one methodologies, has proven to be the most effective approach for learners engaging in online or distance learning.”

Brightsparkz has recently partnered with RETHINK Education. RETHINK Education is an award winning e-learning program designed to give learners’ (Grades 8 – 12) 24//7 access to their Maths, Natural Science and Physical Science needs. The learning content is available from any computer and provides on-going monitoring, support and one-on-one lessons with an online tutor to ensure that the learner understands each section of work.

 Rethink Education logo

RETHINK Education is a modern learning platform providing “educational aid designed to help both teachers and learners using modern technology. The platform delivers multimedia-rich, interactive content in a chat-style format. It is based on the current school curriculum in South Africa for Maths, Natural Sciences, Physics and Chemistry.” RETHINK also supplies content to learners for Cambridge and IEB as well.

 

Your RETHINK package includes the following:

  • Initial assessment and meet-and-greet with your very own Brightsparkz online tutor
  • Easy-to-use Maths and Science tutoring platform aligned with the National Curriculum
  • 24/7 Access to all Grade 8 – 12 learning content
  • Interactive learning content and material such as videos, pictures and text to teach each section of work
  • Monitoring and detailed tracking of each learner’s progress
  • Regular feedback from your tutor and on-going tuition, support, and assistance

Additional one-on-one Skype lessons with your tutor are available on request to reinforce key learning areas and/or to prepare for tests and exams.

For more information visit www.brightsparkz.co.za/online-learning

 

If Grades 1 – 7 English and Math are what you need, then Brightsparkz’ My Own Tutor is for you!

 

My Own Tutor uses a fun and interactive platform to make learning more enjoyable!  As with RETHINK Education, My Own Tutor combines the use of this fantastic platform with your very own online tutor to ensure that each learner receives the maximum benefit of the program.

For home-schooled learners or those following the Cambridge curriculum, the My Own Tutor Maths and English tutoring solution is ideal and covers the Cambridge syllabus for Year 1 – IGCSE.

 

My Own Tutor has been specifically designed to:

  • Identify gaps and weaknesses within a learner’s knowledge of  Maths and English
  • Increase motivation through fun and interactive games and activities
  • Provide the learner with visual lessons teaching them vital basics missed in earlier years
  • Provide the learner with access to practice exercises for revision and exam preparation purposes
  • Keep parents up-to-date with the learners progress with intelligent reporting functions

 

Your My Own Tutor includes the following:

  • Initial assessment and meet-and-greet with your very own tutor
  • Personalised term plan designed for your child
  • Support and monitoring of learner activity and progress by your tutor
  • Email support for homework, extra exercises and exam papers

Additional one-on-one Skype lessons with your tutor is available on request to reinforce key learning areas and/or to prepare for tests and exams.

 

If RETHINK Education or My Own Tutor can help you, then visit www.brightsparkz.co.za/online-learning for more information. For an immediate quote or a free tour, please contact Nic: education@brightsparkz.co.za / 021 823 8704

 

Happy Learning 🙂

Top 10 Universities in South Africa

Many learners may feel unsure about where to enrol for their tertiary education. I have compiled a list of South Africa’s top 10 best Universities. I have assembled this list according to much research, Africa.com, student opinions, reviews and the reputable Times Higher Education World University Rankings.

According to www.timeshighereducation.co.uk, “The Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2014-2015 list the best global universities and are the only international university performance tables to judge world class universities across all of their core missions – teaching, research, knowledge transfer and international outlook. The top universities rankings employ 13 carefully calibrated performance indicators to provide the most comprehensive and balanced comparisons available, which are trusted by students, academics, university leaders, industry and governments.”

Additionally, Africa.com collected both quantitative and qualitative data to determine which of the many universities in South Africa make the top 10 list. A variety of criteria were considered including the following: a) undergraduate and graduate school reputation among higher education peers; b) student selectivity for entering undergraduate class; c) quality and quantity of faculty research, including depth of research facilities and engagement beyond immediate community, and d) international student ratio—the degree to which institution draws students from outside of its national boundaries.

While no one university is a perfect fit for everyone, I do hope that this list provides some helpful and important information when deciding where to study.

1.) University of Cape Town (UCT) University Of Cape Town

Established in 1829, UCT is South Africa’s oldest university and makes a frequent appearance on yearly varsity ‘best’ lists such as the Times Higher Education World University Rankings list. The university is considered the top research institution on the continent, with more “A” rated researchers than any other South African university. It is the highest ranked African university in both the QS World and the Times Higher Education world university rankings. According to the latest Most Recent World University Rankings at www.timeshighereducation,co.uk, UCT places at number 124.

Other than offering the best sports management diploma in the world (as recently bestowed by the Edunivarsal International Scientific Committee), UCT is also considered one of the country’s most environmentally friendly universities. Over the past five years a number of sustainability projects were launched, including Green Campus Initiative, an effort focused on making UCT more environmentally-friendly.
Notable alumni include heart surgeon Christiaan Barnard and at least three Nobel Laureates, including biophysicist Sir Aaron Klug (also a WITS alum), the late Professor Alan MacLeod Cormack, and author JM Coetzee.

2.) University of the Witwaterstrand (WITS) Johannesburg

Wits is considered to be one of the top research universities on the continent and boasts 20 South African Research Chairs, seven research institutes and 20 research units. Just less than 900 academic staff members accommodate over 30,000 students, ten percent of whom are international students.

According to the latest Most Recent World University Rankings at www.timeshighereducation,co.uk, WITS places between numbers 251 – 275.

WITS University has one of the largest fossil collections in the Southern Hemisphere, 14 museums, 2 art galleries, and 12 libraries.
Noteworthy alumni include former South African President Nelson Mandela (he studied law in the 1940s), political activist Helen Suzman, former judge Richard Goldstone, and businessman Patrice Motsepe. The university is also the alma mater of three other Nobel Prize Laureates; biophysicist Aaron Klug, biologist Sydney Brenner, and author Nadine Gordimer.

3.) Stellenbosch University, Western Cape Stellenbosch University

Located near beautiful wine regions; Stellenbosch University has been deemed one of the top research universities in the country. 28,000 students are taught by 915 lecturers and close to 10 percent of those admitted are international students. Providing accomplished tutors. According to the most recent World University Rankings at www.timeshighereducation.co.uk, the University of Stellenbosch places between numbers 276 – 300

The University’s own iShack system was developed to improve the living situations of those living in informal settlements through the use of a basic solar energy system. The initiative was recently awarded a grant by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation that will help upscale the project. With a strong emphasis of research throughout all departments, its Desmond Tutu TB Centre recently won an international prize for its research on childhood tuberculosis (TB) and its community-based approach to TB and HIV care.

4.) Rhodes University, Eastern Cape

Whist one of the smaller universities, comprising of only 7,000 students, Rhodes University is one of the most diverse, since roughly one quarter of its students are international. Due to its small student base, the student to teacher / tutor ratio is more favourable at one lecturer to about 15 students.

According to the official Rhodes University website, all of its degrees are internationally recognised and the university’s International Library of African Music (ILAM) is said to the “greatest repository of African music in the world”. Additionally, the university’s school of Journalism and Media Studies is thought to be one of the best in the country.
Notable Rhode students include virologist Max Theiler (who was awarded a Nobel Prize for developing a yellow fever vaccine), author Wilbur Smith, and internationally recognised journalist Anand Naidoo.

5.) University of Pretoria, Pretoria University of Pretoria

Also considered one of the leading research universities in South Africa, UP offers more than 1,800 programmes at its main campus and hosts more than 50,000 students.

It has the highest research output in South Africa, a position it has held proudly since 1997 and in September last year, the university launched a new research initiative focused on the country’s future energy security, IRT on Energy. It’s also set to become the first university on the continent to offer simulated underground mining training at a Virtual Reality Centre. UP is also home to the Gordon Institute of Business Science (GIBS), one of the country’s foremost Business Schools, which offers internationally credited MBA programmes. The university was recently named the top business school in Africa on the UK Financial Times Executive Education rankings list.

6.) University of the Free State, Bloemfontein University of Free State

The University is comprised of three campuses spread across the city, and hosts more than 33,000 students, including more than 2,000 from abroad.
The University prides itself on its 7 accredited Academic clusters, 107 NRF-accredited professors and 18 international research partnerships. The University has also paved the way in forward-thinking, from being the first university in the country to have a Department of Sign Language, and the only institution on the continent that offers a postgraduate programme in Disaster Management.
Noteworthy alum include, Former South African president P.W. Botha, as well as cricketer Hansie Cronje and author Antjie Krog.

7.) University of Kwazulu-Natal, Durban University of Kwa-Zulu Natal

Hosting over 42,000 students and 1,600 staff, this university is the largest in Sub-Saharan Africa. Over 2,500 of its students are foreign, having come from the Southern African Development Community (SADC), China and India.
Its medical school campus is home to CAPRISA, one of the largest and most effective HIV and AIDS research centres in South Africa. It also produced one of the highest university research outputs during 2010, ranking third overall, and thereby contributing close to 12 percent of the country’s research publications by major universities.
Notable alumni include Finance Minister Pravin Gordhan, Chief Justice Honourable Mogoeng Mogoeng, and businessman Sol Kerzner.

8.) University of Western Cape, Cape Town University of Western Cape

During the years of Apartheid, the University of the Western Cape was where many non-white political activists from across the country were able to get an education. Now, 50 years since its establishment, the university hosts 15,000 students of all nationalities and cultures.
Earlier this year, the university achieved the inaugural Green Campus of the Year award for its many environmentally-friendly enterprises, including its recycling projects and the use of solar powered golf carts for campus workers to get around. UWC is also dedicated to the research and development of free and open-source software. It is the only African member of the Open Courseware Consortium.
Political activist Allan Boesak, and Danny Jordaan, CEO of the 2010 Fifa World Cup, have both graduated from UWC.

9.) University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg

The University of Johannesburg has four campuses located across the city and caters to just more than 48,000 students, of which 2,000 are international. The university places great importance on research and has over 20 research centres and around 90 rated researchers. Research has improved greatly, most especially in areas of life sciences, physical sciences, literature, language and linguistics, as well as management science and business commerce.

10.) Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town

CPUT has just over 32,000 students enrolled on its two campuses, one in Cape Town CBD and the other in Bellville. CPUT is known for its take in creative, more specialist areas of study and for its practical, hands-on approach to education. This is a beneficial and worth-while consideration for those who are not strictly academically inclined.

 

Brightsparkz is proud to have tutors from UCT, WITS, Stellenbosch, and the university of Pretoria, we also have some tutors from UWC as well.